Traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. An object that goes through brain tissue, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, can also cause traumatic brain injury.

Mild traumatic brain injury may affect your brain cells temporarily. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain. These injuries can result in long-term complications.

Symptoms

Traumatic brain injury can have wide-ranging physical and psychological effects. Some signs or symptoms may appear immediately after the traumatic event, while others may appear days or weeks later. Symptoms that may be present, dependent on the severity of the trauma, include but are not limited to:

  • Headaches.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Problems with speech.
  • Sensitivity to light and/or sound.
  • Memory and/or concentration difficulties.
  • Seizures and convulsions.
  • Profound confusion.

Always see your doctor if you or your child has received a blow to the head or body that concerns you or causes behavioral changes. Seek emergency medical care if there are any signs or symptoms of traumatic brain injury following a recent blow or other traumatic injury to the head.